Credit scores have become a basic part of the average consumer’s financial profile. Most people understand the basic function of credit scores, and most have a ballpark idea of their current score. They may not be so sure about how their credit score is calculated.
Understanding where your credit score comes from is not just a matter of satisfying your curiosity. Many people are trying to improve their credit scores, and even those with good scores want to make sure the keep their scores high. Understanding how your credit score is calculated can help you decide on the best ways to improve or protect your credit.
Where do Credit Scores Come From?
The information contained in your credit reports is the basis of your credit score. Creditors submit this information voluntarily in reports to the three major credit reporting companies: Experian, Equifax and TransUnion.
💡 If you’d like to get a copy of your credit report know that each credit reporting company is obligated to provide you with one free credit report every year.
☝️ Not all creditors report to all three of these companies, and they may report on different schedules. That means that your three credit reports will often be slightly different, and may be significantly different.
Credit score providers process this information using proprietary algorithms, and produce your credit score. There are two primary credit score providers.
- FICO, or the Fair Isaac Corporation, has been in business since 1956 and is the dominant provider of credit scores. Most lenders use FICO scores to assess creditworthiness.
- VantageScore was initiated in 2006, a joint project of Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion. Most providers of free credit scores use VantageScore.
😕 Your lender is probably using a FICO score and your free credit score provider is probably using VantageScore. That means you may be looking at different scores, which could cause some confusion.
Your credit score is not held on file and updated on a schedule. Each score is generated as a response to a request. It’s a snapshot of your credit file at the time of a given request, and it can change from day to day as new information is reported.
You Have More Credit Scores than You Think
Most of us see our credit score as a single number. That isn’t the case. Each credit score provider generates multiple scores using multiple algorithms, often tailored to the needs of specific types of lenders.
According to myFICO, the official consumer division of FICO, there are at least 28 different versions of the basic FICO Score. But on closer inspection, that actually translates into no fewer than 84 different scores, at least numerically speaking. That’s because each of the three credit bureaus has its own version of each of the 28 FICO Scores.
|Most widely used version|
|FICO® Score 8||FICO® Score 8||FICO® Score 8|
|Versions used in auto lending|
|FICO® Auto Score 8|
FICO® Auto Score 2
|FICO® Auto Score 8|
FICO® Auto Score 5
|FICO® Auto Score 8
FICO® Auto Score 4
|Versions used in credit card decisioning|
|FICO® Bankcard Score 8|
FICO® Score 3
FICO® Bankcard Score 2
|FICO® Bankcard Score 8|
FICO® Bankcard Score 5
|FICO® Bankcard Score 8
FICO® Bankcard Score 4
|Versions used in mortgage lending|
|FICO® Score 2||FICO® Score 5||FICO® Score 4|
|Newly released version|
|FICO® Score 9|
FICO® Auto Score 9
FICO® Bankcard Score 9
|FICO® Score 9|
FICO® Auto Score 9
FICO® Bankcard Score 9
|FICO® Score 9
FICO® Auto Score 9
FICO® Bankcard Score 9
As you can see from the table above, there are many FICO score versions because FICO generates specialized scores for different lending sectors. Though FICO Score 8 is the most commonly used, there are no fewer than four common FICO Scores for auto lending, five for credit cards, and three for mortgages. Each model gives greater weight to credit performance in the credit sector it specializes in.
🙄 To complicate matters, FICO constantly updates its score versions. As you can see from the bottom section, FICO has FICO Score 9 versions specifically for auto lending, credit cards, and other lending sectors.
Why So Many Credit Scores?
The industry is constantly working to fine tune the credit scoring process. From a lending standpoint, the most important function of credit scores is their ability to predict performance on a loan. A high credit score predicts successful payment of a loan over its full-term. A low score can be indicative of default. That’s exactly why lenders set credit score parameters.
Each lender will decide which version of FICO it will use in making loan decisions based on their own experience with each scoring model.
Meanwhile, the credit universe is constantly changing. As it does, FICO develops new scores to (hopefully) better reflect what’s going on in the market.
The most popular FICO score alternative is the VantageScore developed by Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion. Each of the three credit bureaus has its own slightly different versions of the various FICO scores, and the same situation exists with VantageScore. Each credit bureau has its own version, based on the information contained in its own credit database of your information.
VantageScore 3.0 is the most common version of this scoring model. It was jointly developed by all three major credit bureaus. The primary advantage of this model is that it has only one version, resulting in more uniform scores. VantageScore 4.0 has been released, with a new approach to how your credit score is calculated, but it is not yet in widespread use.
👉 VantageScore is a more recent development than FICO scores, and most lenders don’t use it.
👉 Most companies that report credit scores to consumers do use VantageScore.
And That’s not All…
VantageScore and FICO are the main providers of credit scores, but they aren’t the only scores you may encounter. There are many different credit scoring models, though most are proprietary. Lenders may have their own credit scoring models.
In some cases, the lender will rely exclusively on their own scoring model. More commonly, however, they’ll use their own scoring model as an additional criterion along with one of the FICO variations. Lenders assign their own weightings to their in-house models and your FICO score.
How Your FICO Credit Score is Calculated
Your FICO credit score is calculated using a number of credit factors.
📈 Go to the full page to view charts on this page.
Let’s unpack what each of those contributing factors mean, and how they affect your credit score calculation.
This is the item most consumers associate with credit scores. It’s also the largest single component in the calculation, with a 35% weight. Naturally, this factor takes your payment performance into account. It also measures that history against the total amount of credit you have outstanding.
If you’ve ever heard the term “credit utilization,” this is where it figures into the mix. Though the amounts owed represent 30% of your credit score calculation, it’s not based on a fixed amount of debt. Rather, it’s based on the percentage of your available credit that you are actually using.
The credit scoring models perform similar calculations with installment loans.
The credit scoring models favor credit utilization ratios below 30%. That’s not a fixed boundary and your score won’t fall off a cliff if you cross it, but it’s best to stay below it. Lower is even better, but you don’t want a credit utilization ratio of zero, which indicates that you aren’t using credit at all.
FICO’s “high achievers” – people with credit scores from 800 to 850 – have an average credit utilization of 4%.
Length of Credit History
This factor makes up 15% of your score and plays a much smaller role in your credit score calculation than payment history and amounts owed. It still can make a substantial impact on your credit score.
Credit scoring models reward consumers with longer credit histories. For example, if you’re fresh out of college and have only two credit lines – the oldest being one year – your credit history will be shorter than it will be for someone who has multiple credit lines open for the past decade.
Length of credit history determines how long you’ve been managing credit. The longer you’ve been doing so successfully, the more you help your score.
📘 If you have no credit history read our guide on 5 Most Effective Ways to Start Building Credit in 2021
Credit scoring models reward credit balance. For example, if you have a mortgage, a car loan, and five credit cards, you’ll have a better credit mix than you would if your entire credit profile was limited to just five credit cards.
The reason credit mix is considered important is that it shows the consumer’s ability to successfully apply for different forms of credit and the ability to manage multiple financing types in combination successfully.
☝️ Scoring models prefer to see a balance between revolving credit, like credit cards, and installment credit, like a car loan, student loan, or mortgage. If you only have a single type of debt, you’ll be penalized for overreliance on that type of financing.
Credit scoring models have an inherent preference for established debt. That’s because your payment history can easily be measured, making it easier to predict successful management of the loan. New credit, on the other hand, is an X factor. There’s no history to show how well you’ll handle that new credit line.
⚠️ Applying for a lot of new credit quickly can mean that you’re desperate for credit.
This makes a strong case for adding new credit only when you really need it. If you have two open credit lines, then apply for three new ones within one year, the scoring models will consider you to be a greater risk. Every time you apply for new credit a hard inquiry will register on your credit report, and multiple hard inquiries can harm your credit.
☝️ One exception to this rule: if you’re shopping for a loan and keep your inquiries within a 15-day period, the credit reporting companies will recognize that you are shopping and register only a single hard inquiry.
How Your VantageScore is Calculated
Your VantageScore credit score is calculated using somewhat different criteria, and VantageScore weights those criteria according to its own algorithms. VantageScore doesn’t provide percentages, but rates the overall influence of each component it uses.
- Total Credit Usage, Balance, and Available Credit are “extremely influential”. This includes credit utilization.
- Credit Mix and Experience are “highly influential”.
- Payment History is “moderately influential”.
- Age of Credit History is “less influential”.
- New Accounts Opened is “less influential”.
This breakdown is different from the formula used by FICO, and explains why VantageScore and FICO may generate different scores.
What Does Not Affect Your Credit Score?
There are a number of items that do not have any impact on your credit score.
- Race, color, religion, national origin, gender, or marital status. Federal law prohibits the use of any of these factors in determining credit status.
- Occupation, salary, or employment history. Lenders will evaluate this information, but they won’t get it from your credit report.
- Your age. Neither FICO nor VantageScore considers your age as a factor in your credit score.
- Tax liens, alimony, and child support obligations. Lenders may find these through a public records search, but they do not appear on credit reports.
- Participation in credit counseling. Credit counseling agencies don’t report to the credit bureaus, so participation in credit counseling or a debt management plan will not appear on your credit report.
☝️ Your credit score is about how well you handle debt, not about how rich you are. A low-income person who makes every payment on time can have a higher credit score than a well-off individual who habitually misses payments.
When is Each Credit Score Used?
As mentioned earlier, lenders rely almost entirely on FICO scores, largely because they are customized to each lending sector. VantageScore is not commonly used by lenders.
VantageScore is commonly made available to consumers. In fact, it is the mainstay of free credit score providers, particularly freestanding free credit score providers like Credit Karma and Credit Sesame.
Since VantageScores are free to access, free credit score providers are able to offer them free of charge. Access to FICO scores requires payment of fees, so you probably won’t get them for free. The exceptions are FICO scores provided by your bank or credit union. These institutions have open accounts with access to your FICO scores, and they may choose to provide them to you.
👉 This largely explains why consumers are often surprised when they receive different – usually lower – credit scores from lenders than what’s reported from their free credit score sources. Though you may have a VantageScore of 720, the FICO score used by the lender may show 690.
VantageScores are still a good general reflection of your credit standing. Your VantageScore may be different from your FICO scores, but if your VantageScore is high your FICO score will usually be high as well.
If you are getting a credit score, it’s useful to know which score you are getting. If you mention your score in a conversation with a potential lender, you may wish to mention that you’re aware that it may be different from the score the lender is looking at.
What is a Good Credit Score?
This is a common question, but the answer isn’t always clear-cut. Probably the most common threshold for a good score is around 700. In the vast majority of credit cases, that score will certainly get you approved for a loan. It won’t necessarily get you the best pricing a lender has to offer on the loan you’re applying for.
📘 If you’d like to know more about how your credit score stacks up, review our articles on credit score ranges and what credit scores you need for different types of credit applications.
You have more than one credit score. You have many, and they may be different. This explains why there are often discrepancies from one scoring source to another. It’s not that the information is inaccurate, it’s just that the particular score is based on a different scoring model.
You should still know how your credit score is calculated. That knowledge will help you improve and maintain your credit score. Understanding the variations in credit scores can help you plan your credit more effectively. If you ask which scoring model a lender uses before making an application for credit, you’ll have a better idea of what to expect!